Tag: Technology

Technology PR: Technology & PR – A Symbiotic Relationship

Technology and public relations have always been yoked together and are two areas that are fairly young relative to other sectors of the professional business world. Technology, although it has always existed, has witnessed incredible booms and developments in the 21st century creating a lifestyle our parents could never have imagined. Similarly, public relations as an industry is also relatively new, only really becoming an organized practice in the 20th century as it rapidly outgrew its humble origins of “flackery” and “press agentry.” Of course, the interrelationship is also important – technology obviously has advanced the cause of public relations and technology PR has certainly played a major role in the adoption of new technologies.

The relationship between technology and public relations – particularly technology PR – has always been an interesting one as PR practitioners – particularly technology PR pros – are often the first to exploit the development of new technologies to advance their clients’ goals. Further advances, which undoubtedly are coming, will make the world a smaller place, unite people behind a cause faster and facilitate the sharing of news and knowledge in ways that cannot even be contemplated at this point in time.

A classic example of this relationship can be found with Facebook. The relationship between Facebook, which recently raised more than $ 10 billion in its IPO, and technology PR is quite interesting and somewhat symbiotic… Facebook enjoyed its meteoric assent into public consciousness undoubtedly via some shrewd technology PR techniques while technology PR gained a face through the many uses afforded it by the social networking site. Similar cases can be made for LinkedIn, YouTube and many others.

Technology for public relations – particularly those engaged in the practice of technology PR – is especially important for global firms or public relations firms with clients that are global. It rapidly speeds up the transfer of information and helps people access information more uniformly and accurately. In effect it has globalized and democratized information. Social media technology like Twitter and Facebook are essential for technology PR professionals, as well as online media trades that can be updated a lot more quickly and consistently than print trades: the original outlet for PR press releases, etc. There is no doubt that public relations could not exist without the aid of technology. It might exist, but not as efficiently (anybody remember the world before the advent of super fast fax machines?)

However the practice of technology PR has exerted a strong influence as well. It has helped spread the word about new technologies, fostering their widespread acceptance and benefiting society at large. As we all know technology is a booming field and therefore competitors are growing and present (witness the war among smart phone marketers). Technology PR will help differentiate one product or group from another and establish a relationship with the audience that will yield a competitive advantage through increased brand identity. To accomplish that, technology PR will make use of all the tools – traditional media and, of course social media vehicles like Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, YouTube and so on.

Kevin Waddel is a free lance writer. Get more information about Public relations, Public Relations New York, New York city public relations, Technology PR, PR, NYC Public Relations Firms, Financial Services Relations in New York.

Earn Your Associate’s Degree in Information Systems and Technology

Students who’re keen on computers and data systems should pursue a very good education in information systems and technology. This training degree program usually consists of specialized computer courses and knowledge classes. By pursuing this education exercise and diet program, students are very ready for a position in the corporate environment.

Your computer and Internet have undoubtedly changed the entire world and how its inhabitants get in touch with eath other. Persons are able to broadcast their personal lives, search for information, play games with users on another continent, e-mail their friends and relatives, send photos, network with colleagues and publish blogs in the rapid rate. When using the Internet changing at this type of quick pace, new technology, computer processes and software programs are continually needed to take care of the safety, efficiency and proper using software and also the Internet.

If you enjoy working with computers, the World Wide Web, new technology and appreciate troubleshooting, next the college Associate’s Degree in Information Systems and Technology stands out as the right career site for you. This college education program increases the basic career training foundation which provides students career flexibility when deciding on a technology or computer-related occupation. After graduation, students can go on to pursue a Bachelor’s Degree or delve immediately into the working world.

It students can quickly identify conditions may affect a computer’s basic operations, want to troubleshoot, problem solve, enjoy handling other business friends and provide a radical familiarity with the standard operations of technology. Acquiring an Associate’s Degree will simply take a student two years. Make your best effort, students shall learn by participating in many hands-on online classes and computer classes.

The curriculum educates students inside the fields expertise storage, programming practices, development cycle, technology applications trading strategy and ethical and legal technology issues. Students should be able to locate information resources and evaluate them for relevance and credibility. An Associate’s Degree in it will give students good comprehension of all cyber-related processes.

Information systems management courses are designed to help students develop the cabability to manage and organize the vast online resources of an organization. These classes give students a complete and in-depth perception of management standards along with the fundamentals of strategy and technology systems. Because of this diverse education, students will be able to become an integral part of a number of corporate environments. Students that want to pursue an Associate’s Degree in Information Systems should expect to:

Discover the basics and fundamentals of computers and also the Internet
Familiarize yourself with potential threats, viruses, malware along with hazardous elements that can can damage a computer
Work firsthand with experts within the information advancement and computer products industries, take part in classroom discussion that permit you to seek advice and test your own theories

Test new technology and software programs which are available available
Understand more about information and data storage, retrieval, manipulation and various data processes
Discover more about business settings and how technology works with the corporate world along with its everyday operations, experience how technology benefits a small business environment in a range of contexts

Information Technology Job

Information Technology Efforts are Everywhere – Even That you Pricier Them
If you are looking for that great career, or if you are looking for employment change then you certainly needs to consider taking a look at technology jobs. The field computers is continually growing, this line of business has grown bigger and businesses need more plus more experts in a certain field while in the world of computers.

Information technology effort is increasing daily, these tasks are permeating all areas and all career fields. Listed here are traditional information technology jobs, that could supply you with a basic knowledge of the kinds of jobs available, but there are also many other IT jobs within other career fields.

The laptop Programmer

Career methods of software engineers are continually changing, because software and hardware requirements also are constantly changing. This career field requires you to keep up to date as of yet with new programs and then to gain knowledge of them every year. Some type of computer programmer’s salary may even vary dependant upon the experience he has got.

Web Designer
This is often another It job, nevertheless the web designer isn’t necessarily a programmer, but sometimes have programming knowledge in some cases. Most web-site designers work making web sites. Web sites, web data bases, etc. Online designer often works hand in hand which includes a web programmer, but sometimes also get treatment when using the creative artist, and graphic artist.

Isn’t even close to Animation Expert
This is the specialist operates with moving animations, training videos, games, etc. Whomever operates on this field needs to be proficient in information technology, but additionally creative and artistic. This individual loves computer games and anything regarding animation.

The net Editor and SEO Specialist
These technology jobs involve the writing of content within a practical way specifically for the net. It demands the precise placing of any site within Google. The folks that enter into search engine optimization experienced some form of writing background attending college and computer background too.

Laptop Network Engineer
This data technology job involves working together with isn’t even close to itself, the hardware, software and the company’s networking capabilities. He repairs, diagnoses, changes out computers, and re-establishes the servers working when something happens.

More information Technology Jobs

Has a tendency to are classified as the traditional it jobs, however more and more career fields are requiring extensive computer knowledge. For instance if you intend on entering an engineering field, you will see various computer applications you must be able to manage.
This holds true for accounting and science fields. If by way of example you choosed work with geology you must use spatial technology computer applications and GPS technology.
Internet technology skills will be vital later on in just about all career fields. A lot more computer skills you have the better your work skills will probably be additionally, the better job you can land.

So, for anybody who is choosing your job and tend to be concerned with future tons of employment opportunities, then this job in it is what you are looking at. To succeed your career and transform your pay just as one IT professional you should read more in great detail at Online IT Degree . Computer systems is just not going anywhere. They’re going to do not be obsolete, even though you will really need to keep the skills recent because the fast changes that occur within these fields.

Esarwawilliamsis a Content Writter.He has published articles in differnt Catagories, News,Blogs,Social media and Technology. For more information visit Emerging Technology and Inventions news

Increase workplace productivity using the latest Sales Technology

You like to think of your company as forward-thinking don’t you? Always ready to adopt new methodologies for the greater good of the company? So why haven’t you implemented the latest Sales technology into your workplace yet, what’s wrong with the sales training technology? Did you know that a market leader in Sale Technology has the software to provide your business with a continuous learning system? Maybe you didn’t realise that Sales Technology could be so advanced and your teams could receive ongoing training through an embedded solution.

It’s time face reality my friend by embracing the very latest Sales Technology on the market. Support your teams and give them what they want, proven Sales Technology that actually works.

Make it a date with a class leading Sales technology team

Okay, you’re the first to admit that when you read about sales training technology it becomes a bit of a blur. In fact, Sales Technology isn’t just a bit of a blur, it’s a mega haze, a full-on fog, a real pea-souper and you’re not sure how it can help your company.

Don’t worry, that’s natural, you’re not an expert on Sales Technology that’s where market leaders in sales training technology come to the fore. They provide proven methods and offer reinforced solutions to help drive your sales team forward with the very latest Sales Technology systems. You don’t need to be a genius to understand Sales Technology, that’s a job for class-leading companies who deliver dedicated training programmes to their clients.

Maximise those sales

Obviously the reason you are considering sales training technology is to improve worker-focused tuition within the workplace. With staff using the very latest Sales technology your team will receive ongoing support using up-to-the-minute systems.

Regular training will improve the performance and effectiveness of your workers they’ll benefit directly from the latest Sales Technology training. Use informal learning as a tool and you’ll witness a massive difference that Sales Technology training makes to your workplace.

Individual training solutions can be provided for each individual organisation, Sales Technology solutions are tailored to their exact needs. You’ll certainly enhance the performance of your team and maximise those sales opportunities by introducing sales Technology to their environment.

Sales technology has to be of a superlative calibre and incorporate the most modern, up to date methods if it is to be considered valuable. White-springs.com has top notch sales training technology!

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A Forecast of The Career Opportunities in Surgical Technology – Ahead of 2009

Careers in surgical technology are very plentiful today. According to the International Bureau of Labor Statistics, the employment opportunities in surgical technology are expected to grow faster than ever before by the second half of 2009. Additionally, it is evident that career opportunities in surgical technology will be more for the technology specialists who are certified by the accredited institutions. With the huge popularity of surgical technology, countless numbers of technology programs have popped up. It will be increasingly difficult to spot the best technology training program for surgical technology. The following up is a synopsis of possible career opportunities in surgical technology.

The Hospitals to provide more opportunities for well trained surgical technicians

Though those trained in surgical technology can seek careers in all fields of the healthcare sectors, the hospitals will be the main career source in future. You will be well aware of the fact that many hospitals have started their operation recently and they are all in need of skilled surgical technicians. It has to be noted that more than 70% of the surgical technology jobs came through the hospitals in the year 2008. The hospitals are expected to produce more than 80% employment opportunities for the certified surgical technicians in the near future.

A Faster Employment Rate

Various statistics indicate that the employment rate in surgical technology will increase by 24 % through the years 2009-2012. It must be noted that this rate is well above the average employment growth rate of other occupations available today. The main reason for this peak employment growth rate is, as the population increases, the need for surgeries will eventually increase which in turn will create a great demand for the skilled surgical technicians. Higher employment rates are expected in the physician’s offices and healthcare centers by the end of 2009.

Great Careers for Certified Surgical Technologists

Surgical technology training programs are available everywhere today. However, it is very important to spot the best surgical technology program as the employers are looking for well trained surgical technologists owning a degree from a certified institution. Pennsylvania Surgical Technology Programs are offered by several accredited colleges in Pennsylvania and are considered to be the some of the best programs that is available today. PA Employers prefer the candidates trained in Dickson City, Hazleton, and Sunbury surgical technology programs as they are accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools. Additionally, the students of Pennsylvania Surgical Technology Programs are eligible to get educational loans and many other benefits. Hence, the Dickson City surgical technology program, Hazleton surgical technology program and the Sunbury surgical technology program will become more popular worldwide in the near future.

All these predictions indicate that surgical technology will become one of the best employment sources in the near future. Hence this is the right time to get trained in surgical technology.

The Author of this article knows the importance of Sunbury surgical technology programs in finding the best career. He recommends the business colleges in Pennsylvania to get trained in business therapy. He is very sure that the candidates of the Sunbury surgical technology programs in Pennsylvania can get the best careers immediately.

Begin A Fulfilling Information Technology Career Near Washington DC

Information Technology is an industry that still provides lots of career opportunities in today’s unstable job market. Software development, networking and record maintenance in the health care facilities are just a few of the the opportunities in the information technology field. Because there are many opportunities available in the information technology industry, there are countless numbers of training colleges that have sprung up offering training courses. If you look around for “Information Technology Schools,” you’ll find hundreds of the training schools. However, all schools are not created equal. Selecting the training institutes that offer you the best information technology classes will is a large, and often daunting task. Reading this article will help your search for the best information technology classes in DC metro area. Here is what to look for in an information technology training college.

1. Look for Information technology classes with various options

You will be well aware that there are options like associate degrees and bachelors degrees for information technology. You must always look for information technology classes that offer both associate’s and bachelor’s degrees in the same college. There very few training schools in the DC metro area to offer both associate and bachelor degrees in information technology.

2. Look for information technology classes with updated training materials

Information technology is a rapidly changing field so there will always be updates in technology that you have to learn as you go. Because of this, you should get the most updated knowledge in computer science to stay in the industry. You should do your research and make sure that the training materials used in the information technology classes are giving you the most updated information in computer science.

3. Look for more practical classes in computer science

Unlike other programs, the information technology classes need more practical tuition than theory. Make sure that the training school you choose has adequate lab facilities. The technology courses should also contain lots of lab sessions focusing on computer science. These practical sessions in computer science will help students to learn the actual applications of their knowledge, and gives them more confidence as they start out on their new career.

4. Look for placement assistance

Though there are lots of career opportunities for students graduating with an information technology degree, the placement assistance offered by some of the best training schools will help in the career search. Joining the information technology classes with placement assistance help you land a .

Finding the Right Information Technology School

With the huge popularity of computer science and information technology, thousands of training schools have opened worldwide. Unfortunately not all the training schools are the same. Moreover, some online career training scams have entered the field quite recently. Doing a little research will ensure that you find genuine schools which offer good education in the field of Information Technology. Virginia, for instance is home to several wonderful career schools which offer practical and tailored curricula to a diverse community of working adults and students. With the help of such colleges, getting into a career in information technology is safe and easy.

Potomac College offers a Bachelor’s Degree in Information technology. This is an opportunity to learn an advanced program in accounting who wish to earn a master’s degree and advance their career. You can finish your program of studies quickly and receive the career training. Apply now!

A Technology Degree Online – The Key To A Great Career

One of the more in-demand degrees today is in the field of technology and IT, and the variety of college and university programs on the internet have made it easier to earn a technology degree online. In fact, some the institutions are strictly technology oriented schools.

You can be certified, or you can go for a bachelor’s, masters, or even a doctorate degree in technology online at a variety of online colleges and universities.

Earning a Technology degree online will help you build a detailed understanding of the functions and processes of code development, computer design, and programming methods.

Students enrolled in Technology degree programs online can expect to improve their communication skills, critical thinking, and their technical competency within the workplace through both case analysis studies and hands-on experience.

Career Possibilities

New career opportunities in computer-related sciences and information technology are opening up all the time in the job market, not just in the US, but internationally as well. Just as there is a broad array of career paths in computers and technology to select from, there are just as many certificate and degree programs offered online.

Whether you’re endeavoring to start a new career or just further your current career, there are numerous accredited Technology degrees available online.

The following list (though far from complete) reflects a small sample of the career technology areas:

Applications Programming
Communications
Computer Design
Computer Hardware
Computer Manufacturing
Computer Programming
Data Mining
Data Storage
Database Administration
Database Systems
E-Commerce
Game Design
Information Architecture
Information Management
Information Systems
Networks
Network Security
Operating Systems
Software Design
Systems Analysis
Telecommunications
Web Development

Top-Rated Technology Distance Education Programs

The wide array of computer science and information technology degree programs available online today is literally staggering. The following is a list of the six most sought after programs in the Technology distance education arena:

Online Degrees in Graphics and Multimedia:

game design
graphics and multimedia

Online Degrees in Information Systems Operation and Management:

information assurance
information systems
information systems security
information technology
technical management
vendor certifications

Online Degrees in Networking:

computer networking
network administration
network security
telecommunications

Online Degrees in Programming and Software Development:

computer and software engineering
computer programming
computer science

Online Degrees in Training and Support:

technical writing

Online Degrees in Web Design and Internet:

internet technologies
web design
web development

Reasons for Technology Distance Education Popularity

Certificate and degree programs in the field of technology are among some of the most popular offered online today for three key reasons:

Online classrooms offered in technology distance education are ideal because they offer interactive media in a computer-based curriculum

Best-practices, standards, and technology platforms oftentimes change quickly and technology distance education materials have been designed to be updated continually in order to enable the student to stay ahead of the learning curve

Career opportunities and technology specializations are continually expanding their focus and accredited colleges and universities now offer the most comprehensive array of certificate and degree programs available

No need to give up your job to get a college degree. Not when you can get a knock your socks off accredited online degree in your spare time. Come visit the world of online education at http://www.Selectcourses.com.

Is a Technology Franchise Right for Me?

If you have any experience in the computing and telecommunications industries, a technology franchise could be the perfect fit. There’s no denying that technology is a booming industry. Over 75% of American households own and use a computer. Cell phone usage has been steadily climbing since the late 70s, and today it’s estimated that over a billion people own and use cell phones worldwide. These are just two areas in which your knowledge of technology can help you own and operate a successful technology franchise.

One of the best reasons for starting a technology franchise is the demand for these types of services in the marketplace. Technology changes so fast that there is always a large percentage of the population who needs help with technology-related issues. Whether it’s installing a program on their computer, managing their cell phone or creating a website for their business, your role as a technology business owner can help bridge the gap between their needs and their knowledge.

Mobile computer repair is one of the largest sectors in the world of technology franchises. Computers are so integral to daily life that people can no longer wait a few days or weeks to get their computer back from a repair shop. They’re looking for the convenience of having someone come to their home and repair their computer in a matter of hours. There is a huge demand for quick and reliable service and owning a Computer Medics franchise allows you to meet that demand.

Computer Medics has a proven business model that will give you a leg up in the world of computer repair. The parent company will provide you with training, support and tools that you need to have success with your technology franchise. As you work, you build long-term relationships with your clients based on your trust and professionalism. For someone with experience in IT or strong interest in computers, this could be the perfect technology franchise.

Businesses also have a need for technology support just like independent consumers. Concerto Networks is a technology franchise that taps into this growing need. As a Concerto Networks business owner you’ll be able to help small to medium-sized businesses manage the technology that helps them make money on a daily basis. From computers and the internet, to phones and PDAs, Concerto Networks technicians help businesses run efficiently.

Another option in the technology franchise industry is cartridge refilling. Considering the price of new ink cartridges for printers, it’s easy to understand why this is a booming business. Cartridge Depot is a technology franchise that aims at changing the way people buy ink and toner. With this business, you sell remanufactured cartridges that offer the same quality as new cartridges for just a percentage of the price. Not only does this technology business allow you to help others, but as you recycle cartridges for your customers you will be helping the environment as well.

Technology franchises come in many other varieties as well. Cell phone retailers, web professionals and child-centered technology all fall under this banner. To learn about more options in the technology franchises field, visit www.franchisegenuis.com.

FMI Releases New Report on the Millimeter Wave Technology Market 2016-2026

Millimeter wave (MV) technology is a special type of electromagnetic wave technology. It is a mature technology and recently has been adopted in various application across industries. In the perspective of wireless communication, the millimeter wave generally occupy frequency range between 30 GHz to 300 GHz.

Millimeter Wave Technology Market: Drivers and Restraint
Global millimeter wave technology market is expected to witness double digit compound annual growth rate over the forecast period. Factors which are driving the growth of global millimeter wave technology market are, rising mobile data traffic and growing demand for bandwidth intensive applications, increasing demand for the high speed data connectivity and high potential usage of millimeter wave technology in consumer electronics application.

On the other hand, factors which are restraining the growth of millimeter wave technology market are environmental concerns and limited range. Non-uniform licencing approach is creating a major challenge for the growth of millimeter wave technology market. The global millimeter wave technology market is expected to witness great growth opportunity over the forecast period due to technological advances that encourages the adoption of millimeter wave technology across different industrial verticals such as aerospace, healthcare, defence, telecommunication and automobiles.

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Millimeter Wave Technology Market: Segmentation
Global millimeter wave technology market is segmented on the basis of product, licence, frequency band, application and region. On the basis of product, the global millimeter wave technology market can be segmented into telecommunication equipment, scanner system, radar & satellite communication system and others. On the basis of license, the global millimeter wave technology market can be segmented into light licence frequency millimeter wave, fully licence frequency millimeter wave and unlicensed frequency millimeter wave.

On the basis of application, the global millimeter wave technology market can be segmented into telecommunication, healthcare, military, aerospace & defence, automotive & transportation, consumer electronics and others. In mobile & telecommunication application segment, there is great opportunity for millimeter wave technology. In automotive & transportation application segment, this technology can be used in drivers’ assistant system and the technology can accelerate the commercialization of unmanned vehicles. Additionally. The millimeter wave technology has significant value in healthcare application segment, where it can be used in scanning and imaging devices. On the basis of frequency band, the global millimeter wave technology can be segmented into 8 GHz to 57 GHz band frequency, 58 GHz to 86 GHz band frequency and 87 GHz to 300 GHz band frequency.

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Millimeter Wave Technology Market: Region wise outlook
On the basis of region, the global millimeter wave technology market can be segmented into seven regions which include – North America, Latin America, Asia-Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ), Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa (MEA) and Japan. Further the market is sub-segmented as per the major countries of each region in order to provide better regional analysis of millimeter wave technology market. Out of all these region, North America is expected to dominate the global millimeter wave technology market. U.S is expected to witness a double digit CAGR growth due to rising applications of millimeter wave technology in mobile & telecommunication industry

Millimeter Wave Technology Market: Key Players
Prominent players in the global millimeter wave technology market are Bridge wave Communications, Inc., Key sight Technologies Inc., Key sight Technologies, Siklu Communication Ltd, MI-Wave Inc., Millitech Inc. among others. Key market players are focusing on launch of new products in order to be competitive in the market. For instance, In October 2015, Bridge wave Communications, Inc. launched wireless backhaul millimeter wave system with highest capacity. Millimeter wave technology is able to fulfil the increasing demand of cost efficient high speed data connectivity due to which original equipment manufacturers of consumer electronics are excited in adopting the technology to enhance the proficiencies of existing applications.

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Technology Management Graduate Studies

The increasing importance of technology in every industry continues to drive the need for a diverse group of qualified professionals to manage the implementation and changes in technology. Pursuing a degree at a technology management graduate school can be the right step for beginning a rewarding career in the management of everything from computer hardware to information security within an organization.

Overview of Technology Management

Technology management professionals are in high demand because of the unique set of skills they possess. In this field, professionals are able to make leadership and management based decisions, develop solutions to technology issues, and approach the management of technology from a systems thinking perspective.

For any management professionals, some of the skills that are required include being able to manage personnel, organizational design and communication, and financial analysis and decision making. Technology management professionals combine this knowledge with specific information technology and systems technology skills and knowledge to effectively lead and make decisions for the assessment, forecasting, strategies, and decision making with a number of different information technology departments.

Technology Management Graduate Degree Curriculum

There are a number of technology management graduate school choices for prospective students. While there are differences depending on the individual program and school, students most often complete a set of core courses, electives, and a graduate program in order to complete the graduate degree. This combination helps to prepare graduates to transfer relevant, useful skills into the workforce.

From graduate level courses in technology to business, students are able to learn a variety of skills and gain valuable knowledge. Some courses in technology often included information technology management, operations, emerging technologies, and ethics. Additionally, students will take business and management courses such as supply chain management, sales and marketing, and accounting for technology.

These courses give students the opportunity to gain a broad foundation to develop an understanding of the basic fundamentals of technology management. The electives and the master’s project build on that foundation to help students begin to focus their education on a specific area of technology management. Some examples of electives include knowledge management and relationship management. The master’s level project combines the knowledge, theory, and skill a graduate student has gained though academic coursework to examine how that ability can be transferred to a real-world, challenging business issue or problem in order to find a solution or manage a specific scenario.

Career Development with a Technology Management Graduate Degree

Technology management professionals must develop a variety of skills. In addition to understanding information technology, professionals in this field must also be able to manage change with technology and technology systems, integrate functional areas of business, leveraging technology, and business management principles to effectively lead the technology driven functions of a business.

These skills are needed in many different types of positions across all types of workplaces, from the federal government to non-profit and educational organizations to private corporations. From the chief information officer to information technology manager, a degree in technology management is a helpful tool to gain the experience and skills needed for all types of management positions of technology-driven departments.

The author has an immense knowledge on technology management graduate school. Know more about technology management school related info in his website.

The Duration of Technology Licensing

Innovators charge companies that use their technology as a form of intellectual property by employing different contracting approaches. Licensing of the innovation during the usable duration of time that the producing company benefits for the technology introduces a difficult benefit and cost appropriation concept that requires a mathematical approach. In licensing, the factors that influence the cost and time allocation for the innovation form part of the technology transfer decision, two of the main ones including fixed fees and royalties. In the determination of the actual technology transfer charge and the actual duration of the charge, certain factors such as the type of technology, the type of industry and competitive environment contribute to the consideration of the appropriate charging method. Licensing considerations available to innovators highlight the various technology leakage impacts and the effect that the irregular transfer of the innovation has on the monopoly impact that a company enjoys in the market with several competitors. The basic assumption in the considerations is that there are many companies competing for the technology and the innovator seeks to find the most appropriate method to continue making revenue from the technology once sold (Raspudic 6).

Type of Contracts and Duration As mentioned above, the two types of contracts widely employed in licensing innovation to companies include fixed-fee and royalty payments. Despite the fact that the two licensing contracts have several similarities, distinctions however, stand between them in various fundamental perspectives. In the fixed fee alternative, the technology owner charges a fixed fee on the product and makes it available to all competing companies on take-or-leave basis of offer. In this contract perspective, meeting the initial fixed fee implies that the company agrees the offer and effectively gives the company the rights to use the technology as a license. In the determination of the fixed fee, the number of companies competing to take up the offer forms an integral determinant force. The concept of royalty arrangement finds shape on the unit output analysis where the innovator charges a specific predetermined royalty fee (Raspudic 4).

Licensees become beneficiaries of the technology if they meet the royalty fees. As employed in fixed-fee contracting, the number of licensees determines the amount of royalty charges. The determination of the active duration of a license depends on the type of contract up to when the technology utility reduces to an outdated product or leaks out to competitors’ hands. When the technology leaks, the innovator must extend its life through a second stint of operations where an updated version of the technology must enter the production system.

Licensing a second version of the technology introduces a concept of short-term and long-term usability of the technology, which apply in both fixed-fee contracts and royalty contracts.

Model to Determine the License of Choice and Duration

The mathematical model facilitates deliberating on the appropriate consideration to make in choosing a suitable licensing contract and its duration against a backdrop of competing factors. The model facilitates the determination of an optimal duration, which best captures the revenue earning concept that the innovator keenly follows to stay in business. Within a competitive environment where technology is a central factor of productivity, potential of innovation changes in the future, differentiation in industry needs and a variety of conditions for protection of intellectual property rights, the most suitable form of licensing may offer a difficulty to innovators. The model classifies technological advancements as destructive elements of innovation since licensing needs increase and make it difficult to hold onto licensees.

Advancements in technology or innovation, also referred to as technology leakage, drives intellectual property rights further away from the innovator and leave an irreversible mark. The preservation of intellectual property rights when technology advances gets to a difficult level since it is hard to track copying.

More than one company competes in the operations in which the technology functions. The model divides the life of the license contract into two main periods covering the entire chargeable duration. Period 1 includes four possible contract versions, two short-term and two long-term contracts each for fixed-fee and royalty licenses. The expiration of the first period leads to the introduction of second period that has a contract for fixed-fee and the royalty license. Period 1 license operates during the first period of operations of the company during which the technology assist the company to remain competitive in the market (Raspudic 7).

Continuous research and development counter expiration of the technology and deliver a newer version of the innovation that has a separate contractual agreement, leading to further competitive potential in the market. Certain considerations in the determination of duration and cost include the cost of monopoly that continues to decrease with contracts signed under every innovation. The cost of production depends on the nature of innovation during period one and two, where irreversibility and technology leakage determine setting of license fees and duration. Technology leakage leads to loss of revenue to the innovator since the monopoly cost reduces with technology leakages.

The cost of leaked innovation depends on the nature of leaked technology as well as the latest innovation information that the innovator possesses in order to devise the updated technology. Vertically integrated innovator does not face technology leakage and commitment emerges since the industry monopoly becomes easier with very innovation (Raspudic 10). Bertrand competition considers an environment where the profitability of the innovation best suits one of the competing companies. Fixed fee licenses best deliver results if one company enjoys exclusive rights on the innovation. Firms with lowest costs make meaning to the model and the absence of technology leakage changes the balance.

Fixed fee licensing is practical in cases where technology leakage is rampant and the investor incurs extra investment costs to mitigate losses. Innovation 2 after research and development makes sense to operations if it produces additional benefits in reducing competition. Long term and short term fixed-fee and royalty contracts deal with technology leakage differently. Royalty contacts have a better coverage of long term duration license needs than fixed contracts. Other contracts include valorem royalties that fit high technology industrial needs, two part tariffs with both fixed fees and royalties characteristics.

To view more articles by Morgan he is currently affliated with UkWritingcentre.co.uk. He writers best uk dissertations, research papers, thesis and book reports. Looking for Uk Custom writing service? Feel free to contact us.

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Electronics Engineering Technology Distance Learning – Become a Most in Demand Technologist

Electronics Engineering Technology distance learning courses are flourishing, making use of the low entry-level requirement of a 2-year Associate Degree to become an Engineering Technician, and the further career advancement to an Engineering Technologist (or Applied Engineer) possible in the field by pursuing a 4-year Bachelors Degree. Among all Technicians and Technologists working in USA, Electrical and Electronics Engineering professionals make up more than one-third, which is a clear indication for their demand. And this demand is nowadays driven more by the high-tech industry’s need for Electronics Engineering Technicians, rather than the conventional industries’ need for Electrical Engineering Technicians.

Why Electronics Engineering Technology?

All of today’s booming industrial sectors like telecommunications, medical equipment, control systems, automotive systems, navigational systems, and of course, the consumer appliances sector are bringing out everything from mobile phones to home theatres, and require expertise in Electronics Engineering more than anything else, which explains the demand for Electronics Engineering professionals.

However, to attempt the field through an Engineering Degree can be taxing to those students who are not interested in taking advanced level mathematics (calculus) courses that an Engineering Degree requires, or to endure its long 4-year time frame. For such students, Electronics Engineering Technology is a great option, with its stress on applied or hands-on Electronics Engineering rather than the mathematics-dense and research-oriented Electronics Engineering. The time frame also is much shorter, with an Electronics Engineering Technician requiring only a 2-year Associate Degree to enter the field.

The job opportunities too are tilted in favor of Electronics Engineering Technicians when compared with Electronics Engineers; there are 182,000 Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technicians working in USA, compared with only 143,000 Electronics Engineers. The only drawbacks – a lower level in the hierarchy and the lower starting salaries than Electronics Engineers – can be overcome in the long run, since interested Electronics Engineering Technicians can study further for a 4-year Bachelors Degree, thus qualifying for the senior position of Electronics Engineering Technologist, who enjoys a position and salary comparable to Electronics Engineers. Average salary for Electronics Engineering Senior Technicians / Technologists is US $ 46,000, very comparable to salaries for Electronics Engineers at US $ 52,000.

Why Electronics Engineering Technology Distance Learning?

It is estimated that job opportunities for Electronics Engineering Technicians and Technologists would grow at up to 17% every year, for nearly the next 10 years. The requirement of an Associate Degree for entering the field is a relatively recent phenomenon, and a significant percentage of working Electronics Engineering Technicians doesn’t have such a formal degree. The industry preference to degree holders is encouraging such working professionals to get an Associate Degree, and electronics engineering technology distance learning becomes the natural choice. Also, due to the boom in the sector, those already having an Associate Degree will go for a Bachelors Degree so that they can work as a Technologist. And, of course, the growth prospects in the sector are attracting working professionals from other fields to Electronics Engineering Technology. These three factors are driving the huge demand for electronics engineering technology distance learning courses.

Earlier, there were technological hindrances to deliver such a hands-on course through a distance or online model. However, with the development of state-of-the-art systems like National Instruments’ LabVIEW/ELVIS (Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite), which can be used by remote students through a web browser, to virtually perform any electronics experiment, the demand for Electronics Engineering Distance Learning courses are at an all-time high.

Universities and Colleges Offering Electronics Engineering Technology Distance Learning

Electronics engineering technology distance learning courses offer both 2-year Associate and 4-year Bachelors Degrees. While Community Colleges and Institutes dominate the Associate Degree scene, Universities and Polytechnics are the primary sources for Bachelors Degrees. While searching for electronics engineering technology distance learning courses, it should be kept in mind that many US institutions still call the subject Electrical Engineering Technology.

Associate Degrees

Many Community Colleges and Institutes offer 2-year Associate Degrees for electronics engineering technology distance learning, but fully accredited courses are fewer. Whether for employment as an Electronics Engineering Technician or for further pursuance of a Bachelors Degree, it is always better to go for an accredited course. Cleveland Institute of Electronics (CIE), Penn Foster Career School, and Grantham University are three institutions that offer accredited Associate Degrees in the subject.

CIE’s Associate in Applied Science (A.A.S.) in Electronics Engineering Technology boasts of many unique features. Designed from the ground up as a distance learning course, rather than an online adaptation of a regular course, the CIE A.A.S. provides everything that an electronics engineering technology distance learning student might require, in a packaged fashion – complete with printed courseware for over 250 self-paced lessons, videos, and detailed instructions for the over 300 hands-on lab experiments. The only thing missing will be access to an Oscilloscope, and the CIE Bookstore even sells Oscilloscopes at discounted prices to its students! One-to-one instructor support is always available for students. Even the exams can be taken online. A really unique feature of the course is that interested and capable students can complete the course in half or even quarter time, and need only pay for that!

Penn Foster Career School offers an Associate in Specialized Technology (AST) in Electronics Technology, that can be completed fully online, with access to an internet-connected computer being the only requirement. Tuition includes well-written and amply-illustrated printed courseware, tools and equipment for experiments, and unlimited instructor support through website, phone, email, and regular mail. Online open-book exams and end-of-semester proctored exams are other features of this course. The course is self-paced, with longer than 2-year durations allowed.

Grantham University offers an Associate of Science (AS) in Electronics Engineering Technology through the distance mode. The tuition package for the course includes textbooks, lesson guides, grading of all tests, mailing of materials and graded tests from the college, consultation with instructors, and required software. Proctored exams are conducted at the end of every semester, which lend more credibility to this course. Consultation with instructors is available through phone, fax, email, and regular mail. To better facilitate the distance mode of the course, Grantham University even provides a discounted option for its students to buy computers from Dell. However, the main advantage of this course is that full credit transfer is possible to Grantham’s Bachelors Degree in the subject. Grantham is especially popular with military students.

Bachelors Degrees

When it comes to Bachelors Degrees for electronics engineering technology distance learning, even courses with accreditation from the Technology Accreditation Commission (TAC) of the Accreditation Board for Engineering Technology (ABET) are available.

Old Dominion University offers its Bachelor of Science (BS) in Engineering Technology, with Electrical Engineering Technology as Major, and Electrical Systems Technology as optional. The course name follows the earlier US convention of naming Electronics Engineering courses as Electrical Engineering courses. This B.S. indeed has significant stress on Electronics Engineering Technology. In-depth coverage of Electronics includes Linear Electronics, Digital Controls, Microprocessors, Communications, Control Systems etc. High-tech delivery methods like virtual laboratory, streaming video, and satellite broadcast for 1-way video and 2-way audio, are fully utilized. The course is accredited by TAC of ABET.

World College, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Cleveland Institute of Electronics (CIE), offers a Bachelor of Electronics Engineering Technology (BEET) through the distance mode. Features include over 300 lab experiments, online exams, and toll free phones and email for consultation with instructors. Subjects covered include Electronics, Computer Technology, Telecommunications, Electrical Power, and Control Systems. Access to a computer and an oscilloscope are necessary.

Grantham University (described above, under Associate Degrees) also offers a Bachelor of Science (BS) in Electronics Engineering Technology.

The only current limiting factor for electronics engineering technology distance learning seems to be the high costs for implementing virtual labs that can be simultaneously accessed by a large number of students, and once this is solved by better and economical hardware and software, electronics engineering technology distance learning will be provided by more and more Universities, Colleges, and Polytechnic Institutes.

Jim Zorn is web master of the Guide to Distance Learning. Please visit to learn more about online colleges and universities, distance learning degrees, majors and courses offered.
http://www.guide-to-distance-learning.com/index.html

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Impacts of Information Technology on Society in the New Century

In the past few decades there has been a revolution in computing and communications, and all indications are that technological progress and use of information technology will continue at a rapid pace. Accompanying and supporting the dramatic increases in the power and use of new information technologies has been the declining cost of communications as a result of both technological improvements and increased competition. According to Moore’s law the processing power of microchips is doubling every 18 months. These advances present many significant opportunities but also pose major challenges. Today, innovations in information technology are having wide-ranging effects across numerous domains of society, and policy makers are acting on issues involving economic productivity, intellectual property rights, privacy protection, and affordability of and access to information. Choices made now will have long lasting consequences, and attention must be paid to their social and economic impacts.

One of the most significant outcomes of the progress of information technology is probably electronic commerce over the Internet, a new way of conducting business. Though only a few years old, it may radically alter economic activities and the social environment. Already, it affects such large sectors as communications, finance and retail trade and might expand to areas such as education and health services. It implies the seamless application of information and communication technology along the entire value chain of a business that is conducted electronically.

The impacts of information technology and electronic commerce on business models, commerce, market structure, workplace, labour market, education, private life and society as a whole.

1. Business Models, Commerce and Market Structure

One important way in which information technology is affecting work is by reducing the importance of distance. In many industries, the geographic distribution of work is changing significantly. For instance, some software firms have found that they can overcome the tight local market for software engineers by sending projects to India or other nations where the wages are much lower. Furthermore, such arrangements can take advantage of the time differences so that critical projects can be worked on nearly around the clock. Firms can outsource their manufacturing to other nations and rely on telecommunications to keep marketing, R&D, and distribution teams in close contact with the manufacturing groups. Thus the technology can enable a finer division of labour among countries, which in turn affects the relative demand for various skills in each nation. The technology enables various types of work and employment to be decoupled from one another. Firms have greater freedom to locate their economic activities, creating greater competition among regions in infrastructure, labour, capital, and other resource markets. It also opens the door for regulatory arbitrage: firms can increasingly choose which tax authority and other regulations apply.

Computers and communication technologies also promote more market-like forms of production and distribution. An infrastructure of computing and communication technology, providing 24-hour access at low cost to almost any kind of price and product information desired by buyers, will reduce the informational barriers to efficient market operation. This infrastructure might also provide the means for effecting real-time transactions and make intermediaries such as sales clerks, stock brokers and travel agents, whose function is to provide an essential information link between buyers and sellers, redundant. Removal of intermediaries would reduce the costs in the production and distribution value chain. The information technologies have facilitated the evolution of enhanced mail order retailing, in which goods can be ordered quickly by using telephones or computer networks and then dispatched by suppliers through integrated transport companies that rely extensively on computers and communication technologies to control their operations. Nonphysical goods, such as software, can be shipped electronically, eliminating the entire transport channel. Payments can be done in new ways. The result is disintermediation throughout the distribution channel, with cost reduction, lower end-consumer prices, and higher profit margins.

The impact of information technology on the firms’ cost structure can be best illustrated on the electronic commerce example. The key areas of cost reduction when carrying out a sale via electronic commerce rather than in a traditional store involve physical establishment, order placement and execution, customer support, strong, inventory carrying, and distribution. Although setting up and maintaining an e-commerce web site might be expensive, it is certainly less expensive to maintain such a storefront than a physical one because it is always open, can be accessed by millions around the globe, and has few variable costs, so that it can scale up to meet the demand. By maintaining one ‘store’ instead of several, duplicate inventory costs are eliminated. In addition, e-commerce is very effective at reducing the costs of attracting new customers, because advertising is typically cheaper than for other media and more targeted. Moreover, the electronic interface allows e-commerce merchants to check that an order is internally consistent and that the order, receipt, and invoice match. Through e-commerce, firms are able to move much of their customer support on line so that customers can access databases or manuals directly. This significantly cuts costs while generally improving the quality of service. E-commerce shops require far fewer, but high-skilled, employees. E-commerce also permits savings in inventory carrying costs. The faster the input can be ordered and delivered, the less the need for a large inventory. The impact on costs associated with decreased inventories is most pronounced in industries where the product has a limited shelf life (e.g. bananas), is subject to fast technological obsolescence or price declines (e.g. computers), or where there is a rapid flow of new products (e.g. books, music). Although shipping costs can increase the cost of many products purchased via electronic commerce and add substantially to the final price, distribution costs are significantly reduced for digital products such as financial services, software, and travel, which are important e-commerce segments.

Although electronic commerce causes the disintermediation of some intermediaries, it creates greater dependency on others and also some entirely new intermediary functions. Among the intermediary services that could add costs to e-commerce transactions are advertising, secure online payment, and delivery. The relative ease of becoming an e-commerce merchant and setting up stores results in such a huge number of offerings that consumers can easily be overwhelmed. This increases the importance of using advertising to establish a brand name and thus generate consumer familiarity and trust. For new e-commerce start-ups, this process can be expensive and represents a significant transaction cost. The openness, global reach, and lack of physical clues that are inherent characteristics of e-commerce also make it vulnerable to fraud and thus increase certain costs for e-commerce merchants as compared to traditional stores. New techniques are being developed to protect the use of credit cards in e-commerce transactions, but the need for greater security and user verification leads to increased costs. A key feature of e-commerce is the convenience of having purchases delivered directly. In the case of tangibles, such as books, this incurs delivery costs, which cause prices to rise in most cases, thereby negating many of the savings associated with e-commerce and substantially adding to transaction costs.

With the Internet, e-commerce is rapidly expanding into a fast-moving, open global market with an ever-increasing number of participants. The open and global nature of e-commerce is likely to increase market size and change market structure, both in terms of the number and size of players and the way in which players compete on international markets. Digitized products can cross the border in real time, consumers can shop 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and firms are increasingly faced with international online competition. The Internet is helping to enlarge existing markets by cutting through many of the distribution and marketing barriers that can prevent firms from gaining access to foreign markets. E-commerce lowers information and transaction costs for operating on overseas markets and provides a cheap and efficient way to strengthen customer-supplier relations. It also encourages companies to develop innovative ways of advertising, delivering and supporting their product and services. While e-commerce on the Internet offers the potential for global markets, certain factors, such as language, transport costs, local reputation, as well as differences in the cost and ease of access to networks, attenuate this potential to a greater or lesser extent.

2. Workplace and Labour Market

Computers and communication technologies allow individuals to communicate with one another in ways complementary to traditional face-to-face, telephonic, and written modes. They enable collaborative work involving distributed communities of actors who seldom, if ever, meet physically. These technologies utilize communication infrastructures that are both global and always up, thus enabling 24-hour activity and asynchronous as well as synchronous interactions among individuals, groups, and organizations. Social interaction in organizations will be affected by use of computers and communication technologies. Peer-to-peer relations across department lines will be enhanced through sharing of information and coordination of activities. Interaction between superiors and subordinates will become more tense because of social control issues raised by the use of computerized monitoring systems, but on the other hand, the use of e-mail will lower the barriers to communications across different status levels, resulting in more uninhibited communications between supervisor and subordinates.

That the importance of distance will be reduced by computers and communication technology also favours telecommuting, and thus, has implications for the residence patterns of the citizens. As workers find that they can do most of their work at home rather than in a centralized workplace, the demand for homes in climatically and physically attractive regions would increase. The consequences of such a shift in employment from the suburbs to more remote areas would be profound. Property values would rise in the favoured destinations and fall in the suburbs. Rural, historical, or charming aspects of life and the environment in the newly attractive areas would be threatened. Since most telecommuters would be among the better educated and higher paid, the demand in these areas for high-income and high-status services like gourmet restaurants and clothing boutiques would increase. Also would there be an expansion of services of all types, creating and expanding job opportunities for the local population.

By reducing the fixed cost of employment, widespread telecommuting should make it easier for individuals to work on flexible schedules, to work part time, to share jobs, or to hold two or more jobs simultaneously. Since changing employers would not necessarily require changing one’s place of residence, telecommuting should increase job mobility and speed career advancement. This increased flexibility might also reduce job stress and increase job satisfaction. Since job stress is a major factor governing health there may be additional benefits in the form of reduced health costs and mortality rates. On the other hand one might also argue that technologies, by expanding the number of different tasks that are expected of workers and the array of skills needed to perform these tasks, might speed up work and increase the level of stress and time pressure on workers.

A question that is more difficult to be answered is about the impacts that computers and communications might have on employment. The ability of computers and communications to perform routine tasks such as bookkeeping more rapidly than humans leads to concern that people will be replaced by computers and communications. The response to this argument is that even if computers and communications lead to the elimination of some workers, other jobs will be created, particularly for computer professionals, and that growth in output will increase overall employment. It is more likely that computers and communications will lead to changes in the types of workers needed for different occupations rather than to changes in total employment.

A number of industries are affected by electronic commerce. The distribution sector is directly affected, as e-commerce is a way of supplying and delivering goods and services. Other industries, indirectly affected, are those related to information and communication technology (the infrastructure that enables e-commerce), content-related industries (entertainment, software), transactions-related industries (financial sector, advertising, travel, transport). eCommerce might also create new markets or extend market reach beyond traditional borders. Enlarging the market will have a positive effect on jobs. Another important issue relates to inter linkages among activities affected by e-commerce. Expenditure for e-commerce-related intermediate goods and services will create jobs indirectly, on the basis of the volume of electronic transactions and their effect on prices, costs and productivity. The convergence of media, telecommunication and computing technologies is creating a new integrated supply chain for the production and delivery of multimedia and information content. Most of the employment related to e-commerce around the content industries and communication infrastructure such as the Internet.

Jobs are both created and destroyed by technology, trade, and organizational change. These processes also underlie changes in the skill composition of employment. Beyond the net employment gains or losses brought about by these factors, it is apparent that workers with different skill levels will be affected differently. E-commerce is certainly driving the demand for IT professionals but it also requires IT expertise to be coupled with strong business application skills, thereby generating demand for a flexible, multi-skilled work force. There is a growing need for increased integration of Internet front-end applications with enterprise operations, applications and back-end databases. Many of the IT skill requirements needed for Internet support can be met by low-paid IT workers who can deal with the organizational services needed for basic web page programming. However, wide area networks, competitive web sites, and complex network applications require much more skill than a platform-specific IT job. Since the skills required for e-commerce are rare and in high demand, e-commerce might accelerate the up skilling trend in many countries by requiring high-skilled computer scientists to replace low-skilled information clerks, cashiers and market salespersons.

3. Education

Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects. Advances in information technology will affect the craft of teaching by complementing rather than eliminating traditional classroom instruction. Indeed the effective instructor acts in a mixture of roles. In one role the instructor is a supplier of services to the students, who might be regarded as its customers. But the effective instructor occupies another role as well, as a supervisor of students, and plays a role in motivating, encouraging, evaluating, and developing students. For any topic there will always be a small percentage of students with the necessary background, motivation, and self-discipline to learn from self-paced workbooks or computer assisted instruction. For the majority of students, however, the presence of a live instructor will continue to be far more effective than a computer assisted counterpart in facilitating positive educational outcomes. The greatest potential for new information technology lies in improving the productivity of time spent outside the classroom. Making solutions to problem sets and assigned reading materials available on the Internet offers a lot of convenience. E-mail vastly simplifies communication between students and faculty and among students who may be engaged in group projects.

Although distance learning has existed for some time, the Internet makes possible a large expansion in coverage and better delivery of instruction. Text can be combined with audio/ video, and students can interact in real time via e-mail and discussion groups. Such technical improvements coincide with a general demand for retraining by those who, due to work and family demands, cannot attend traditional courses. Distance learning via the Internet is likely to complement existing schools for children and university students, but it could have more of a substitution effect for continuing education programmes. For some degree programmes, high-prestige institutions could use their reputation to attract students who would otherwise attend a local facility. Owing to the Internet’s ease of access and convenience for distance learning, overall demand for such programmes will probably expand, leading to growth in this segment of e-commerce.

As shown in the previous section, high level skills are vital in a technology-based and knowledge intensive economy. Changes associated with rapid technological advances in industry have made continual upgrading of professional skills an economic necessity. The goal of lifelong learning can only be accomplished by reinforcing and adapting existing systems of learning, both in public and private sectors. The demand for education and training concerns the full range of modern technology. Information technologies are uniquely capable of providing ways to meet this demand. Online training via the Internet ranges from accessing self-study courses to complete electronic classrooms. These computer-based training programmes provide flexibility in skills acquisition and are more affordable and relevant than more traditional seminars and courses.

4. Private Life and Society

Increasing representation of a wide variety of content in digital form results in easier and cheaper duplication and distribution of information. This has a mixed effect on the provision of content. On the one hand, content can be distributed at a lower unit cost. On the other hand, distribution of content outside of channels that respect intellectual property rights can reduce the incentives of creators and distributors to produce and make content available in the first place. Information technology raises a host of questions about intellectual property protection and new tools and regulations have to be developed in order to solve this problem.

Many issues also surround free speech and regulation of content on the Internet, and there continue to be calls for mechanisms to control objectionable content. However it is very difficult to find a sensible solution. Dealing with indecent material involves understanding not only the views on such topics but also their evolution over time. Furthermore, the same technology that allows for content altering with respect to decency can be used to filter political speech and to restrict access to political material. Thus, if censorship does not appear to be an option, a possible solution might be labelling. The idea is that consumers will be better informed in their decisions to avoid objectionable content.

The rapid increase in computing and communications power has raised considerable concern about privacy both in the public and private sector. Decreases in the cost of data storage and information processing make it likely that it will become practicable for both government and private data-mining enterprises to collect detailed dossiers on all citizens. Nobody knows who currently collects data about individuals, how this data is used and shared or how this data might be misused. These concerns lower the consumers’ trust in online institutions and communication and, thus, inhibit the development of electronic commerce. A technological approach to protecting privacy might by cryptography although it might be claimed that cryptography presents a serious barrier to criminal investigations.

It is popular wisdom that people today suffer information overload. A lot of the information available on the Internet is incomplete and even incorrect. People spend more and more of their time absorbing irrelevant information just because it is available and they think they should know about it. Therefore, it must be studied how people assign credibility to the information they collect in order to invent and develop new credibility systems to help consumers to manage the information overload.

Technological progress inevitably creates dependence on technology. Indeed the creation of vital infrastructure ensures dependence on that infrastructure. As surely as the world is now dependent on its transport, telephone, and other infrastructures, it will be dependent on the emerging information infrastructure. Dependence on technology can bring risks. Failures in the technological infrastructure can cause the collapse of economic and social functionality. Blackouts of long-distance telephone service, credit data systems, and electronic funds transfer systems, and other such vital communications and information processing services would undoubtedly cause widespread economic disruption. However, it is probably impossible to avoid technological dependence. Therefore, what must be considered is the exposure brought from dependence on technologies with a recognizable probability of failure, no workable substitute at hand, and high costs as a result of failure.

The ongoing computing and communications revolution has numerous economic and social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and technology design. Decisions have to be taken carefully. Many choices being made now will be costly or difficult to modify in the future.

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